The Permissibility of the Second Jam’ah

When the first Jamaah in the Masjid is finished and later more people
arrive can they make a second Jamaah and pray? What is the ruling according
to the book and the sunnah?

making a second Jamaah in one masjid has a difference of opinion from the
salaf us saliheen some Imams for example, Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal and Ishaaq
Ibn Rahywayyah and other have gone towards a position that a second Jamaah
is permissible where as Imaam Maalik and Imaam Shafi’ee and Ashaab ur-ray
(People of opiinion ie the founders of the Hanafee madhab) held the position
that the second Jamaah is makrooh (disliked). It is the saying of Imaam
Shafi’ee that the second Jamaah is makrooh in a masjid in which the Imaam
and the Muadhin are fixed. (Kitaab ul Umm of Shafiee (1\136, 137). Where as
it is the saying of Ahnaf Ashaab Ur-Rayy (The companions of the people of
opinion) that it is Makrooh Tahreemi like it has been mentioned in Fataawa
Shaamee. (Of Ibn Aabideen (10th Century Hijree)

THE PROOFS OF THE FIRST GROUP:
“It is narrated from Abu Sa’eed Khudri that the Messenger of Allah saw a
person who was praying alone in the masjid so the Messenger of Allaah said,
“Who will take part in transaction and pray with him”. It is in the second
narration that a man entered the masjid at the time when the jammat had
finished so the Messenger of Allaah said, “Who will give him sadaqa and pray
with him,” so an individual stood up and prayed with him.”
(See Al-Muntaqa li Ibn Jarood (no. 330), Abu Dawood (1/157 no.574),
Tirmidhee (1/427 no. 220), Daarimee (1\258, 318), Musnad Ahmad (3\5, 64, 85,
5\45), Musnad Abee Ya’ala (2/321), Ibn Hibbaan (no’s 436, 437, 438),
Tabaranee As-Sagheer (1/218, 238), Baihaqee (3/69), Al-Muhalla (4/238),
Haakim (1/209), Sharh us-Sunnah (3/436), Ibn Abee Shaybah (2/322), Ibn
Khuzaimah (1/632), Nasab ar Ra’yah (2/57), Tadween Fee Akhbaar Qazween Lil
Rafa’ee (2/258) Imaam Haakim Said it is Saheeh and Dhahabee agreed with him

This same Hadeeth is narrated in Sunan DaarQutnee (1/277), From Anas Ibn
Maalik. About which Allaamah Nimawee Hanafee said in Athar us-Sunnan (1/267)
“Isnaaduhu saheehun”, Allaamah Zaylee Hanafee In Nasb ar-Ra’yah (2/58)
“Wassandu jayidan”. Like wise Haafidh Ibn Hajr al-Asqaalaanee also said that
the Isnaad is good (Ad-Daraayah (1/173)

It is in Baihaqee that Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu) was person who prayed with him Allaamah
Zail’ee Hanafee in Nasb Ar-Ra’yah and Allaamah Suyootee in “Quwwat
al-Mugtadhee” also said the same.

The Hadeeth of Abu Sa’eed al-Khudree was considered Hasan by Imaam Tirmidhee
and Imaam Haakim, Dhahabee and Ibn Hazm said it was Saheeh. Imaam Baghawee
said after this Hadeeth in his book Sharh us-Sunnah, “This Hadeeth proves
(Abu Saeed Al Khudri) that the individual who prayed in the Jamaah once, it
is permissible for him to pray with other people a second time. Like wise it
is permissible to establish the second Jamaah. This is the saying of many
Companions and great Taab’ieen.”

Imaam Ibn Qudamaah said, “Repeating The Jamaah in the masjid is not Makrooh
(Disliked), it means that when the Imaam of the local Masjid has finished
the congregational prayer and the people for the second Jamaah are present,
then it is Mustahab (Recommended) for them to pray in congregation. This is
the saying of Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood, Ataa, Nakh’aee, Hasan, Qataadah and
Ishaaq Ibn Rahawaihah” (Al-Mugnee (3/10)

After this Imaam Ibn Qudaamah also mentioned the Hadeeth of Abu Sa’eed.

“It is narrated from Abu Hurairah the Messenger of Allaah said, “The reward
of the congregational prayer is 25 times more than the prayer said alone.”
(Bukhaari with Fath al-Baari (2/299), Muslim with Sharh Nawawee (5/151),
Muwatta of Imaam Maalik (1/29), Nisaa’e (1/24, 2/103), Tirmidhee (no. 216),
Ibn Maajah (no. 787), Daarimee (1/235), Abu Awaanah (2/2), Ibn Khuzaimah
(2/364), Ibn Hibbaan (3/381,382), Baihaaqee (3/60) and Sharh Us-Sunnah
(3/340)

In the same way the Hadeeth of Abdullah Ibn Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu) mentions the reward of
27 times. (Bukhaari with Fath al-Baari (2/131).

This Hadeeth in its generality includes the first and second Jamaah from
which we find out that if the first Jamaah of a person is finished then he
can offer his prayer with the second Jamaah and obtain the reward.

“It is narrated from Abu Uthmaan al-Ja’ad that Anas Ibn Maalik passed by the
Masjid of Banee Tha’labah and said “Have you prayed.” And is said yes that
was the morning prayer. He ordered one person to call the Adhaan and
Iqaamah, then he led his companions in prayer.” (Taaleeqan (Footnote form)
in Bukhaari (2/131) with Fath al-Baari, Musnad Abee Ya’ala (7/315 no. 4355),
Ibn Abee Shaybah (1/148, 2/321), Baihaqee (3/70), Majma’a az-Zawaa’id (2/4),
al-Mataalib al-Aaliyyah (1/118, no. 426), Tagleeq at-Ta’leeq (2/276), Abdur
Razzaaq (2/291), Tabaqaat al-Muhadditheen Li Abee ash-Shaykh (1/402,403) in
Mawsoolan form)

“Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood entered the Masjid and the people had prayed, so he
led Alqamah, Masrooq and Aswad in prayer.” (Ibn Abee Shaybah, Abkaar
al-Manan (p. 253) Its chain is authentic, Mir’aah Sharh Mishkaat (4/104)

From these AHadeeth and Aathaar we find that performing the second Jamaah in
the Masjid is permissible without and this was the position of the Major
Companions (Raa).

The Proofs of those who consider it Makrooh.
It is narrated from Abu Bakrah “The Messenger came from the outskirts of
Madinah and he wanted to offer the prayer. He observed that the people had
offered their prayers. So he went to his house and gathered his family
members and then prayed with them.” (al-Kaamil Li Ibn Adiyy (6/2398),
Majma’a Az-Zawaa’id (2/48), Tabaranee al-Awsat (no. 4379),

al-Imaam az-Zamah, al-Allaamah , al-Muhaddith, al-Faqeeh, Umdah tul Ulama,
Abu Abdur Rahmaan Muhammad Naasir ud Deen al-Albaanee (Rh) said its chain is
Hasan in Tamaam al-Minnah (1/155). And Allamaah Haithamee said Tabaraanee
have narrated it in Mu’ajam al-Kabeer and Awsth, its narrators are
trustworthy.

The conclusion that is drawn form this Hadeeth is that if the second Jamaah
was permissible then the Messenger of Allaah would not have abandoned the
virtues of praying in the Masjid ie he would have prayed in the Masjid
because the reward is greater in praying in the Prophets Masjid than in a
normal Masjid.

FIRSTLY
Al-Allaamah, al-Muhaddith, Shaykh ul-Hindh Ubaidullaah Rahmaanee and
Mubaarakpooree said concerning this, “Taking this as a proof for the
prohibition (Ie it being Makrooh) of the second Jamaah in the Masjid is
objectionable, because this Hadeeth is not a text for him leading them in
prayer in his house rather there is also the question that he may have led
them in prayer in the Masjid. His going to his house was for gathering his
family members, not for doing the Jamaah. (see Miraat)

If it is accepted that he did lead his family members in prayer at his
house, then it still does not prove the prohibition for performing the
second Jamaah but the deductive point that is proven is that if a man was to
go to a Masjid where the Jamaah had finished then he should not pray in the
Masjid but rather he should go home and pray with his family.

Any way saying that praying in a second Jamaah is Makrooh (disliked) is not
proven from this Hadeeth like it does not prove the prohibition of the
individual person who comes to pray in the Masjid (after the Jamaah is
finished). If this Hadeeth is taken for the second Jamaah being Makrooh,
then this also proves that the individual person must not pray in the
Masjid.” (Mir’aat, The Sharh of Mishkaat (4/105)

SECONDLY
The saying of Al-Imaam Al-Muhaddith Abu Abdur-Rahmaan Muhammad Naasir ud deen
al-Albaanee (Alyhee Rahamatullaah) that the chain of this Hadeeth is “Hasan”, is objectionable
because one of the narrator of the Hadeeth “Baqiyyah Ibn Waleed” is a
Mudallis and he would perform “Tadless at-Taswiyyah” which is a big form of
Tadlees and his hearing (from the teachers or Shuyookh) is not continuously
clear.

Tadlees at-Taswiyyah, is A Tadlees of the Isnaad and it is defined as, when
there are three narrators, for example the first one is reliable and
trustworthy, the second narrator is Daeef and the third one is reliable and
trustworthy. A Mudallis of the Taswiyyah type omits the second person (The
Da’eef one) from the chain and mentions the name of the 1st and 2nd person
only. (See Al-Kifaayah Fee Ilm Ar-Rawayah (p.364), Nawawee in Al-Irshaad
(p.94), Haafidh Araqee in At-Taqayyid Wal-Aeydah (pp.95-96) who also said
this is the worst type of Tadlees)

The Stronger Opinion Regarding of Baqiyyah Ibn Waleed.

Baqiyyah Ibn Waleed performed this type of Tadlees, See Al-Kifaayah (p.364),
Jaam’e At-Tahseel (p. 102-103) of Imaam E’laaae, At-Tabayan (p. 12),
At-Taqayyid Wal-Aeydah (pp. 95-96) and Al-Fiyyah al-Hadeeth Ma’a Fath
al-Mugheeth (p. 84-85) of Abdur-Raheem al-Araaqee

Ibn Abee Haatim said, “Baqiyyah was the person who performed it the most (ie
Tadlees at-Taswiyyah).” (Elal Al-Hadeeth (2/161), Fath al-Mugheeth (p. 84),
Al-Fiyyah (p. 364)

Imaam Dhahabee quotes, that Abul Hasan Ibn Qattaan said, “Baqiyyah would
perform Tadlees from Da’eef people and would hold it permissible and if this
correctly proven from him, then this is such an action that it will make his
trustworthiness Faasid (Null and void). Imaam Dhahabee writes concerning him
“By Allaah this is correct concerning him, that he would do this.” (Meezaan
(1/339), Tahdheeb (1/419)

Haafidh Ibn Hajr has mentioned him in the fourth category of the
Mudalliseen. (Tabaqaat al-Mudalliseen (p. 14, 49) for further proofs of him
being a Mudallis see (At-Tabayan Lisabt (p. 12, 16) of Ibn al-Ajamee, Kitaab
al-Mudalliseen (p. 37) of Abu Zar’ah, Manzoomah of Dhahabee and Manzoomah of
al-Maqdisee Bi-Aahar At-Tabaqaat- Ithaaf al-Ansaaree (p. 6-11-20),
At-Tadlees d: Masfar p. 54, 60 and 369)

Imaam Ibn Hazm said, “Such an individual is a fabricator and is open Fisq,
it is therefore Waajib to throw away all his AHadeeth whether Tadlees is
reported in them or not, even if he says he heard….All his narration’s are
rejected and not accepted and his trustworthiness is exterminated because he
deceives the people of Islaam.” Imaam Sakhawee said, “From amongst these
people is Baqiyyah Ibn Waleed.” (Al-Ahkaam Fee Usool al-Ahkaam (1/142), Fath
al-Mugheeth (1/227) of Sakhawee.

Imaam Haakim says, “Baqiyyah Ibn Waleed has narrated such AHadeeth from the
creation of Allaah that their Names, lineage, reliability are untraceable.”
(Ma’arifah Uloom al-Hadeeth (p. 132)

Imaam Sufyaan Ibn Uyainah called him Abul Ajab (The father of
amazement/surprise)” (Ad-Dhu’faa of Uqailee (1/163), Meezaan, (1/332),
Tahdheeb (1/418)

Abu Haatim said “He is not worthy of Proof.” (Meezaan (1/332), Tahdheeb
(1/417)

Imaam Ibn Khuzaimah said, “I do not use Baqiyyah as Proof.” (Meezaan
(1/332), Tahdheeb (1/418)

Dhahabee said, “Baqiyyah is the person of weird, odd and munkar narrations.
Abdul Haqq has said he is not proof in many narrations” (Meezaan (1/332)

Imaam Ibn Adiyy said, “Baqiyyah opposes the reliable people in some
AHadeeth.” (Meezaan (1/337), Al-Kaamil (2/512).

Abu MusHar (d. 210H) who was a great Scholar of Hadeeth from Shaam, He was
put through a lot of trials for rejecting the Aqeedah of the creation of the
Qur’aan by the Khaaliph. (See Tareekh al-Baghdaad (11/72) of Khateeb,
Al-Ibar Fee Khabar Min Ghabar (1/374) of Dhahabee, Tadhkirrah Tal-Huffaadh
(1/381) of Dhahabee, Tahdheeb at-Tahdheeb (6/98) of Ibn Hajr

Abu MusHar said “The AHadeeth of Baqiyyah are not clean, beware of them”
(See Meezaan al-Ei’tidaal Fee Naqad Ar-Rijaal (1/332) of Imaam Dhahabee
(d.748), Tareekh al-Baghdaad (7/124), Tahdheeb (1/417)

The narration of Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood from Ibraaheem that Alqamah al-Aswad
went with Ibn Mas’ood to the masjid where they found the people had already
prayed, so he took them back to the house, where he led them in prayer.”
“Abdur-Razzaaq (2/409 no. 3883) from him Tabaraanee in Mu’jam al-Kabeer no.
9380)

This narration contains Hamaad Ibn Abee Suleimaan who was forgetful (See
Majma Az-Zawaa’id (1/119, 120) and a also a Mudallis, (Tabaqaat
al-Mudalliseen). This narration is like “on the authority, on the authority
of” ie Aan Aan and such a narration is Da’eef. So only three narrators are
taken as proof before the forgetting of Hamaad, Allaamah Haithamee said,
“The narrations of Hamaad that will be accepted are those which were
narrated from him by narrators, before his forgetting. For example Shu’bah,
Sufyaan ath-Thawree and Hishaam Dastawai, and whoever apart from them (Ie
these three) narrates from him will be after his forgetting.” (Majma
az-Zawaa’id (1/125).

Approximately this has also been mentioned by Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (See
Sharh Elal Tirmidhee of Ibn Rajab p.326). Mu’amar narrated this from Hamaad
therefore it is not a proof.

It has been established authentically above that Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood prayed
the second Jamaah in the masjid and the narration of prohibition is Da’eef.
Also the affrimatory action takes precedence over the negatory action and
therefore with these two points in mind there is permissibility of praying
in a second Jamaah in the masjid.

Shaykh Ubaidullaah Rehmaanee (Rahimahullaah) said, “According to us the better opinion
is that if a person reached the masjid and the Jamaah with the established
Imaam had elapsed and he did not pray due to a reason, then it is
permissible and Mubah (Recommended) that he pray with the second Jamaah.”
(Mir’aat, The Sharh of Mishkaat (4/107)

However it must be stressed this opinion does not permit missing the first
Jamaah and praying with the second due to laziness or any other invalid
reason and utmost care and determination must be maintained in order to
reach the first Jamaah

By Abu Khuzaimah Ansaari

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